Nine Minnesota wrestling greats were honored at the Minnesota Chapter of the National Wrestling Hall of Fame banquet held at the Owatonna Holiday Inn on April 22, 2006.
2006 Hall of Fame inductees:
- Brad Rheingans – Outstanding American
- Bob “Bart” Bardwell – Medal of Courage
- Dan Chandler – Lifetime Service
- Al Hendrickson – Lifetime Service
- Eiler Henrickson – Lifetime Service
- Garth Lappin – Lifetime Service
- Richard “Dick” Shiels – Lifetime Service
- Glen Swenson – Lifetime Service
- Paul Ehrhard – Lifetime Service
The following are short biographies of this year’s nine Hall of Fame inductees.
Brad Rheingans – Outstanding American
This Appleton, Minnesota native may have been raised in a ‘small’ town, but everything else he did was ‘Big’! From collegiate to Olympic to Professional wrestling fame. Brad Rheingans, is a well-known name to the sport of wrestling.
As an All-State football player, two-time Minnesota State Wrestling Champion, 1971 High School All-American wrestler and National Junior World Greco-Roman Champion, Rheingans had plenty of credentials entering college. His success did not stop here.
Rheingans attended North Dakota State University and under legendary coach Bucky Maughan he became a 1975 NCAA Division II National Champion, four-time NCAA All-American, three-time North Central Conference Champion and was voted 1975 ‘Outstanding Athlete’ at NDSU and ‘Outstanding Athlete’ of the State of North Dakota. He graduated from NDSU with majors in pharmacy and human physiology.
Upon his graduation, he entered the Greco-Roman wrestling scene. His success continued. His fame just increased to an ever larger audience. He became a 1975 World team member, five-time National AAU Champion, 1976 Olympic Trials Champion, became the highest placing Greco wrestler for the USA ever to that date, placing 4th, at the Olympics. He went on to become 1976 World Cup Freestyle Champion, two-time National USWF Greco-Roman Champion and placed 4th at the 1978 World Tournament in Mexico City. He was a 2nd place winner in the 1978 Mustafa World Tournament in Alexandria, Egypt; two-time Gold Medalist in the Pan American Games and was a 1979 Bronze Medalist in the World Championships in San Diego, CA. When he had an opportunity to becoming America’s first-ever Greco-Roman Olympic Champion the USA Team was boycotted from participating in the 1980 Olympic Games by President Jimmy Carter.
Rheingans’ fame made him an obvious choice for Professional Wrestling and he signed with the American Wrestling Association (AWA) in 1981. He was trained by legendary Vern Gagne, wrestling with that organization through 1986. He then signed with the New Japan Pro Wrestling and has worked as wrestler and scout ever since. He and partner, Ken Patera, were AWA World Tag Team Champions. They were called ‘The Olympians’. As a coach, Rheingans served as the 1984 Olympic Greco-Roman Wrestling Assistant Coach. He served as assistant coach at the University of Minnesota in 1975 through 1978 and at North Dakota State University in 1979 and 1980. As an actor, he auditioned for the part of the “Russian” in the movie Rocky IV (1984). He was also a stuntman in the Walt Disney movie “Bad Guys (1985).” He owned and operated World Wide School of Professional Wrestling, Inc., from 1984 to 2004.
Rheingans was an accomplished athlete in other sports as well. In football, he was named to the 1970 All-State Team two times where he was also an all-conference selection, and was co-captain and voted most valuable player. In the sport of track, he was two-time Little Sioux Conference and District Champion in the discuss and shot put, and he still holds the school record at 47’9″ in the shot put. As a wrestler, he was coached in high school by Bucky Maughan’s brother, Robert Maughan.
Rheingans is a member of the Dave Bartelma Minnesota Wrestling “Hall of Fame”, NCAA Division II Wrestling “Hall of Fame,” and the 2004 International Wrestling “Hall of Fame”.
Brad continues to work with the New Japan Pro-Wrestling, Inc. He travels back and forth from Japan. He is a tremendous Ambassador for our sport and he will always be remembered in legendary proportions in the history of amateur wrestling. Minnesota is proud to claim him as our native son.
Bob “Bart” Bardwell – Medal of Courage
Former Stewartville High School Coach, Howard Sloneker, in his nomination letter, I think best describes the courageous and accomplished life of Bob “Bart” Bardwell when he says, “I unequivocally endorse Bob, as a candidate for the Medal of Courage Award, and I thank you for the privilege to do so. It would be a major error on my part or anyone who knows Bob, not to admire the tremendous courage and faith he has demonstrated after his very unfortunate accident that paralyzed him from the waist down. This only inspired him to new heights. He used that character to build facilities called Ironwood Spring Ranch, recognized not only locally, but state, national, and to a degree, international wide. Many youth, adults and organizations have experienced and continue to experience the benefits of his vision and foresight.” Bob “Bart” Bardwell is the Minnesota Chapter of the National Wrestling Hall of Fame’s 2006 ‘Medal of Courage’ recipient.
As a wrestler, Bardwell competed for five years at Stewartville High School and was on the varsity for four years. He qualified for Regions each year under the then tough ‘one class’ system. He was unable to compete his senior year due to an injury. He continued his wrestling career in college at Pillsbury Baptist College (Owatonna, MN) where he compiled a 744 record and was Team Captain. His 10-year wrestling career ended upon another injury while training for the 1972 Olympic Games Trials in Anoka, Minnesota.
A heavy construction accident left Bardwell paralyzed from the waist down in 1973. His injury only served as an inspiration though. He became founder (1976) and current executive director of a nonprofit organization called Ironwood Springs Christian Ranch serving 23,000 kids and adults each year. This ranch serves the ‘physically challenged’ from across the country and several foreign countries. The past 17 years Bardwell has also served as a national motivational speaker and authored the book “The Marathons of Life.”
Bardwell continued his athletic participation by competing in 100 marathons between 1983 and 2002. He was a first place finisher in several of them, including the Twin Cities Marathon, three years in a row, from 1985 to 1987.
The Minnesota Chapter of the National Wrestling Hall of Fame is proud to present the Medal of Courage to a most deserving and courageous athlete, and humanitarian, in Bob “Bart” Bardwell.
Dan Chandler – Lifetime Service Honoree
When you talk about wrestling history in Minnesota the name of Dan Chandler has to be mentioned. This 12-time National Greco-Roman Champion, three-time Olympian, three-time World place-winner placing 6th in 1977, 6th in 1978 and 5th in 1979, two-time Pan American Games Champion (1975, 1979) and a wrestler with 11 international medals would be enough to qualify him as legendary proportions in Minnesota Wrestling. However, his many contributions go well beyond his former status as a Greco-Roman Wrestler.
Chandler is a three-time Olympic Team Coach. He has coached the Senior Greco team since 1982. He has coached the likes of Minnesota greats Jim Martinez 1984 Olympic Bronze Medalist, Dennis Kozlowski 1992 Olympic Silver Medalist, Brandon Paulson 1996 Olympic Silver Medalist, Garrett Lowney 2000 Olympic Bronze Medalist, Mike Houck 1985 World Champion, and Mike Foy 1989 World Runner-up.
He is a member of the Dave Bartelma Minnesota Wrestling Hall of Fame (1992), named five times
as USA Wrestling ‘National Coach of the Year’ (1994, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2000); US Olympic Committee ‘Coach of the Year’ for the 2000 Olympics and is a gold level coach with the USAW, named in 2004. He has served as Minnesota USA coach for several years and also volunteered his time as a coach in the Minneapolis Park and Rec., program since 1989. He also served as head coach at the University of St. Thomas in the late 1980’s. Currently, he serves as State Coach and General Manager for Minnesota USA Wrestling, Inc.
Chandler got his start as a high school wrestler at Anoka under Coach Ron Malcolm. He went on to the University of Minnesota where he placed 3rd and 4th in the Big 10 and served as Team Captain his senior year for Coach Wally Johnson’s Gopher Team.
Longtime North Dakota State University Coach Bucky Maughan says, “Dan Chandler is one of the real leaders in making Minnesota wrestling as good as it is. He’s been a major player.” Obviously, statements like that show the high regard for Chandler’s contributions to the sport of wrestling. However, the respect he has from the wrestlers he’s coached is phenomenal. Wrestler, Mike Fiedler, says, “When he (Chandler) talks everybody listens. Everybody freezes and watches him. Anything he says a wrestler will do or try to do. You want to impress him.”
Coach Chandler has brought Greco-Roman Wrestling to a higher level of achievement as USA Olympic coach. He coached Rulon Gardner to one of Olympic history’s most historic victories in winning his gold medal by defeating the Russian, Alexander Karelin, a three-time Olympic Champion! Dan is truly one of the greatest contributors as an athlete and coach to making Minnesota Wrestling a great success and bringing it recognition throughout the country and the world.
Al Hendrickson – Lifetime Service Honoree
The sport of wrestling began at Moorhead State College in 1952. Hendrickson joined the program in 1953, he lettered his first year. That early beginning became a trademark for Hendrickson as he was responsible for starting several high school programs. He started the program at Herman High School and helped Hancock High School coach, Ron Kragness get wrestling started at Hancock. His efforts inspired other schools to start programs as well.
After four years at Herman High School, Hendrickson moved on to Appleton High School. He began officiating in 1965. The following year he took the coaching, position at Morris High School, remaining there until retirement in 1982, 25 years later. After retirement, he volunteered his time as a coaching assistant at the University of Minnesota-Morris for two years and later volunteered at Morris High School for several years. His career coaching record stood at 209-90-2 with 26 State Qualifiers and eight State place winners. Roger Bonk (1962), Dan Ambom (1969), and Mike Hendrickson were State runner-ups. Tom Beyer, a former state placer (4th place in 1976) went on to become a four-time All-American and National Champion while wrestling at the University of Minnesota-Morris, as did Al’s son, Mike, who became an All-American at UMM.
Hendrickson’s team captured District titles in District 13 in 1965, District 21 in 1967, 1977, 1978, 1979 and won a Region title in 1968. His teams were Region runner-ups in 1967, 1978, and 1979. West Central Conference titles were won in 1967, 1968, 1979, and 1980.
Al takes pride in hosting the first ‘free’ West Central Area Wrestling Camp at Morris High School. He has also been a clinician for Spencer Yohe’s Greg Schwartz Memorial Wrestling Camp.
Hendrickson is a charter member of the Dave Bartelma Minnesota Wrestling Hall of Fame in 1973, he was also presented the ‘Outstanding Contributor Award’ at the 1973 Minnesota State Wrestling Tournament for his contributions to the state tourney. He has received the NWCA distinguished 25-year service award. Great Falls, Montana athletic director, Jim Grant, probably sums up the kind of person and coach Al Hendrickson was when he states: “Al Hendrickson is a first class guy. He is a solid citizen whose word is his bond. He is a highly principled, trustworthy man of integrity. He is honest, reliable, and caring. He has lived all facets of his life in exemplary fashion. He has been a great husband, father, coach/leader, friend and citizen. He is a fine role model for young people.”
Al Hendrickson has served Minnesota high school wrestling well. He was a pioneer for several high school programs in the state. He served the wrestling community by his contributing efforts to making the high school state tournament better. He was a successful coach who motivated young men to success on and off the mats. He is one of Minnesota’s great educator’s whose efforts as a coach went the extra mile to motivate young men to accomplish great feats.
Eiler Henrickson – Lifetime Service Honoree
One of Minnesota’s pioneers in wrestling was Carleton College Coach Eiler Henrickson, a premier amateur wrestler, wrestling official and outstanding educator for over 50 years.
Raised in Deerwood, Minnesota, Henrickson attended Crosby-Ironton High School where he participated in football, basketball, and track. He graduated in 1938. Upon graduation, he played for the Deerwood Blazers in the Independent Basketball League. He attended Carleton College in Northfield in 1939, graduating in 1943. At Carleton, he participated in football, wrestling, and track. He even occasionally ran cross country during half-time of the football games.
In track, Henrickson really excelled. He ran the half-mile, one mile, two mile and quarter mile. He set Carleton College records in both the indoor and outdoor one mile and outdoor two mile races. As a wrestler, Henrickson went undefeated in three years of competition, defeating opponents from the University of Minnesota, Nebraska, Wisconsin and Cornell College, a powerhouse at that time. He wrestled the Northwest AAU National Tournament in New York City, losing by one point to the eventual champion. He was Carleton’s team captain and student coach in 1942-43. He established Carlton College Wrestling’s coveted “Brueggeman Memorial Award” for outstanding sportsmanship, loyalty, leadership and contributions to wrestling.
In 1958 Henrickson was offered the position of head football coach and athletic director but declined to pursue his love of Geology, serving as a professor for the next 41 years. He taught an additional 10 years at Colorado College.
Henrickson officiated high school and college wrestling for 30 years and officiated at the Minnesota State High School tournament for 18 years. He also officiated several Big 10 and college national tournaments.
Eiler was elected as a charter member of the Carlton College Athletic Hall of Fame in 1976. He also received the 25-year service award from the NWCA in appreciation for his outstanding contributions to wrestling. He is a member of the Dave Bartelma Minnesota Wrestling Hall of Fame, and Crosby-Ironton Athletic Hall of Fame. He continued to wrestle and participate with others athletes until age 72.
As a World renowned economic geologist, Henrickson has done research in Turkey, Greece, Egypt, Alaska, Canada and numerous other countries and territories. He published scientific papers in books and journals, and he toured on the lecture circuit to 23 universities in 15 countries. He is listed in Who’s Who in America, Who’s Who in the World, American Men of Science, Who’s Who in Science and Technology and other publications.
This is a gentleman of great magnitude, who’s passion for athletics led him to our great sport of wrestling. He participated to the highest level as a competitor, a coach, and an official. Minnesota wrestling is considered some of the best in the country due to the efforts of men like
Eiler Henrickson 2006 Lifetime Service Honorees
Garth Lappin – Lifetime Service Honoree
A Big 10 Champion, NCAA National Runner-up and Team Captain at the University of Minnesota, Garth Lappin continued that same success as a coach and later, became the first principal at both Coon Rapids Junior High and Coon Rapids High School. He is one of the great names attributed to Minnesota Wrestling legend.
Garth was born in 1921 in northern Iowa and educated in a one-room school house. He started wrestling in Cresco, Iowa, a small community with a tremendous tradition of turning out wrestling legends. He served with the U.S. Navy in World War II.
Lappin started his teaching and coaching career in 1949 at Anoka High School where his teams accumulated a 102-17 win-loss record. He coached two Minnesota State Championship teams and 16 individual State Champions. He is a member of the Dave Bartelma Minnesota Wrestling Hall of Fame. He also wrestled for Coach Bartelma at the University of Minnesota.
Lappin was a tireless promoter of wrestling and one of Minnesota’s pioneers in the sport. During the emergence of youth wrestling in Minnesota, Garth arranged for both AAU and Wrestling Federation Tournaments that were held at Anoka and Coon Rapids High Schools. He arranged for the USA team to wrestle the USSR touring team at Anoka High School. He served wrestling in Minnesota from 1949 to 1972.
“Lappin was an active wrestling official at the high school and collegiate, and he was one of the founders of the first wrestling officials association in the metro area. In 1972 he was the tournament director of the United States Olympic Wrestling Trials held in Anoka. Garth gave back to wrestling for decades and provided support for many wrestling activities,” says Don Meyers, also a former high school coach, principal, and Hall of Fame Member.
Minnesota Chapter President, Spencer Yohe, says, “There is no question that Garth was one of the greatest wrestlers in Minnesota Gopher history, and was one of the outstanding leaders and pioneers, and one of the best coaches in the state of Minnesota during his era. The state of Minnesota has certainly benefited and become stronger over the years because of the guidance and direction from the likes of “Garth Lappin.”
Since retiring, Lappin has continued to be active. He has volunteered for numerous organizations including Save the Children Craft Shop and the U.S. Olympic Wrestling Committee, which he has chaired. He served for 25 years (through 2000) on the board of the Harlan R Thurston Foundation, which has provided thousands of dollars in loans for higher and vocational education to deserving students in Anoka-Hennepin District #11; He volunteered with the Hospice Program of North Memorial Medical Center for 14 years.
Garth Lappin is a name that will always be associated with the growth and development of Minnesota high school wrestling. He was also one of the State’s first great coaches. This former Minnesota Gopher star will always be remembered in legendary proportions.
Richard “Dick” Shiels – Lifetime Service Honoree
One of the great coaches from southern Minnesota was that of Faribault’s Dick Shiels. Shiels led the Faribault Falcons to two state consolation championships in 1977 and 1982 and three region titles in 1967, 1977, 1982, while finishing second five times. The Falcons also captured five titles in the tough Big Nine Conference under Shiels.
Dick attended Fairmont High School as a freshman and sophomore then his family moved to Waterloo, Iowa where he attended West Waterloo High School. This is the same school where legendary Dan Gable wrestled under coaching legend Bob Siddens. After graduation in 1948, he then attended Iowa State Teachers College (now the University of Northern Iowa).
Shiels served his country well by fulfilling a military tour of duty during the Korean War for three years. He came back to Iowa State Teachers College and graduated in 1956. He began his teaching and coaching career in the Cedar Rapids, Iowa school system where he taught and coached at the junior high level.
In 1960, Dick moved to Faribault, where he was a teacher, coach, counselor, and later principal, for 33 years. An assistant to Jerry Schroeder for five years, Dick took over the head coach wrestling job in 1965, coaching until 1983. He retired from education in 1993, along with his wife, Betty.
Shiels coached eight individual state champions and 46 state place winners, several of these in the old ‘one class’ system. Considering the tough competition back then in Region One only compliments these already impressive numbers. However, even with tough individual athletes on his teams, Shiels understood the importance of coaching all the athletes. He would always say, “Good kids will always win, but the average kids win the dual meets for you.”
Dick’s remaining 12 years in education were spent as a counselor and junior high principal. He certainly served many students and teachers. He is also proud of his family. His son, Mark, is a medical doctor in Rockford, Illinois. Tim, a well-known official at the collegiate level who was an All-American wrestler at the University of Minnesota-Morris and former coach at St. Olaf College. Daughter, Barbara, is an attorney for the University of Minnesota. Youngest daughter, Betsy, is employed by Ameriprise.
Dick Shiels was a part of powerful southern Minnesota wrestling history during some of its most formative years. He coached some of the best teams in the state. He helped make Faribault wrestling a well-known powerhouse in Minnesota high school wrestling and he
helped motivate many young people to successful lives, whether on the mats or off. Shiels will always be remembered among some of Minnesota’s finest coaches.
Glen Swenson – Lifetime Service Honoree
Born in Floodwood, Minnesota in 1924. He attended public schools in Grand Rapids. He graduated in 1942 from Grand Rapids High School. Swenson then enlisted in the United States Army Air Corps. He was trained as a navigator and served in that capacity with the eighth Air Force in England. He flew 24 missions. Upon his discharge, he enrolled at St. Olaf College and graduated with a B.S. degree in physical education, with a minor in biology, science, and mathematics in 1950. He went on to receive a Masters Degree from the University of Minnesota and a Specialist Degree from Mankato State College (1974).
Swenson started his education career as a University of Minnesota instructor at the North Central School of Agriculture near Grand Rapids, teaching from 1951 to 1954. He did everything from teaching physical education and health to running the intramural program, supervising a dormitory, to coaching football and restarting wrestling. In 1954 he took a teaching position at the junior high in Grand Rapids. He was there 20 years and 10 more at the high school. He served as assistant coach in football and served twice as a head wrestling coach (1955-58, 1967), while serving 16 years as an assistant to legendary head coach “Skip” Nalan, (1960-66), Jack Willhite, (1958, 1959) and John Curran, (1954).
Swenson helped guide the 1961 Grand Rapids team to a state runner-up finish under head coach Jack Willhite. Former Grand Rapids great James Kamman says, “Most of the wrestlers were brought into the program and coached by ‘Swens’.” All got their start by Swens in the early 1950s. Many of these kids would not have been able to compete but for Swens providing them a ride after practice.” Swenson was a great contributor to Minnesota wrestling having served as MWCA President. He was awarded the honor of ‘Outstanding Contributions to Wrestling Award.’
As a head coach, Swenson’s record was 34-10-1. The varsity team record while he served as an assistant was 152-28-3. Swenson was credited with recruiting a number of Grand Rapids future stars while they were young prospects in junior high. He also had made contact with youth as a member of the Grand Rapids Recreation Board for 12 years and Swenson officiated from 1952 to 1965. Swenson is a member of the Dave Bartelma Minnesota Wrestling Hall of Fame and the Grand Rapids High School Wrestling Hall of Fame. His contributions to wrestling were many and those who worked with him are well aware of them.
Swenson is currently an avid fisherman, antique gas engine restorer, private pilot and a radio controlled airplane enthusiast.
It’s time for a true unsung hero to be honored for his many contributions to the young men he provided opportunities to over the years. Kamman says, “Swenson is one of the true pioneers in promoting and spreading wrestling, especially in the northern part of the state. He worked tirelessly over decades to develop the sport and spread it throughout the State. He started in the era of canvas mats, tights, no tops, and hard head gear or no headgear.”
Paul Ehrhard – Lifetime Service Honoree
One of Minnesota’s true coaching legends is Paul Ehrhard. Ehrhard made the southern Minnesota community of Albert Lea a well-known name to sports fans across the state. As an assistant coach in football and head coach in wrestling, he helped guide teams to a combined six state championships. As a football coach, Ehrhard was a defensive coordinator and offensive line coach on teams that were three times named Minnesota’s best by the Minneapolis Star & Tribune and the St. Paul Pioneer Press. As a head wrestling coach, his Tiger teams captured three state championships, two individual team titles in 1966 and 1971, while winning one of the first Dual Meet Team titles in 1976. Ehrhard is also a member of the Dave Bartelma Minnesota Wrestling Hall of Fame and a former Minnesota State Wrestling “Coach of the Year”.
A 1951 graduate of Montgomery High School he went on to play football and baseball at the College of St Thomas where he became a three-time MIAC. All-Conference football player. He was also introduced to the sport of wrestling at St Thomas.
Ehrhard began his coaching career in 1956 at Kasson-Mantorville where he coached three sports in football, wrestling, and baseball. He moved to Albert Lea in 1957, serving as head football coach for 18 years and head wrestling coach for 20 years.
Under Ehrhard’s direction, the Tigers of Albert Lea would capture 11 Big Nine Conference titles, 11 Region one (Section) titles and place in the top two 17 of 20 years. The Tigers captured 16 of 17 District Two titles. He coached 13 individual State Champions. At one point the Tigers won a string of 102 straight dual meet victories on the road, against one of the State’s toughest schedules. His career coaching record at Albert Lea was 234-25-6.
A number of his wrestlers went on to capture All-American of NCAA national championship honors, including the legendary Chuck Jean (two-time NCAA I and two-time NAIA national champion), Jim Lunde, Larry Goodnature, Larry Kilstadius, Lew Kennedy, Neal Skaar, and Tom Jean. Gary Neist was a 1972 Greco-Roman Olympian. A number of these have gone on to successful wrestling coaching careers, as well as Jerry Bakke at Buffalo and Dwight Gingerich at Rochester Mayo High School. Other success stories include Lew Kennedy in business, Jeff Brooke as a Personal Injury Lawyer, and Dr. Bob Hatch as chairman of the History Department at the University of Florida. Ehrhard’s sons, both state place-winners for Albert Lea, are Colonels in the U.S. Air Force. Tom, a Full Colonel. placed 4th in state in 1976. David, a Lt. Colonel, was state runner-up in 1983.
As a wrestling official, Ehrhard was among the most notable in the country working NCAA and NAIA national tournaments, as well as meets in the Big 10, Big 8, NCC, NIC, MIAC and Iowa Athletic Conferences.
Ehrhard was also very active in the Minnesota Wrestling Coaches Association. He was among the leaders of a small group of coaches who took the dual meet format to the MSHSL for approval. This format change greatly increased the enthusiasm and attendance at the Minnesota state wrestling tournament.
As a camp clinician, Ehrhard was featured at the nationally recognized Concordia College Clinic for many years. He was also featured at the Fall Minnesota Wrestling Coaches Clinic, as well as clinics at the University of Wisconsin, University of Minnesota, Iowa State University and others.
Lew Kennedy, Ehrhard’s first state champion in 1960 recalls Coach Ehrhard’s dedication to innovative ways to teach moves. “He used logic to always start at the beginning of a move and build on it from there. He was always totally prepared and had our opponents well scouted.” Gerry Bakke, one of Ehrhard’s state place winner’s at Albert Lea, stated the following in his nomination of his high school coach: “Coach Ehrhard had some detractors over the years because of his passion. He never talked to us about winning but only doing the best that we could. He set the bar high by his own preparation which he transferred team so we always felt we could win. No one wanted to win more than he did. Deep down to him winning the state championship was what really counted. However, he also knew that taking boys and turning them into men was his primary goal in coaching.” Paul Ehrhard was a great coach, motivator and a great leader of men.